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Basic Horse Care: Essentials Every New Owner Should Know

Are you thinking about bringing a horse into your life? Before you do, it's essential to understand the commitment involved in their care. Spoiler alert: It’s a LOT. 

This article will guide you through the essentials of basic horse care, ensuring you're prepared to provide a safe, healthy, and happy environment for your new equine friend!

Understanding Horse Needs

Horses require ample space to roam, regular exercise to maintain health, and a shelter to protect them from the elements. A paddock or pasture that is safe and secure is essential, as is a stable or barn for shelter during inclement weather or rest.

You can arrange for them to have these things at your home or a boarding stable. Each option has its perks - but after spending many years as a boarder, I can honestly say I can’t wait to have my horses at home!

Social Needs

Equines are inherently social creatures. They thrive on interaction with other horses and form bonds that are super important for their mental well-being. Additionally, regular human interaction helps them to build trust and confidence, which is crucial for training and handling - and building a bond, of course!

Choosing the Right Horse

Selecting the right horse is about more than just falling in love with a pair of big, beautiful eyes, although that’s pretty easy to do. I think I’ve done it approximately 4,000 times in my lifetime. 

Consider factors such as age, temperament, and health. Younger horses may require more training and handling, while older horses might have specific care needs. Temperament is crucial as it needs to match your handling skills and lifestyle.

The Importance of a Pre-Purchase Exam

Never skip the pre-purchase exam (PPE), no matter how perfect the horse seems. This examination by an equine veterinarian can reveal health issues that are not immediately apparent. It ensures you are aware of any potential medical care or limitations the horse may have.

The buyer should always be responsible for choosing which vet will do the PPE. Choose one you know and trust!

Daily Care Essentials

Proper nutrition is crucial for maintaining a horse's health. Horses typically eat a diet of grass, hay, grains, and sometimes specialised feed, depending on their dietary needs and activity levels. 

Feeding should follow a consistent schedule, usually two to three times a day, to keep their digestive system healthy and functioning properly.

Water is as essential for horses as it is for all living beings.Your horse, or horses, should always have access to fresh, clean water at all times. Check and refill water troughs at least twice a day to prevent dehydration and support overall health.

Health Management

Routine check-ups with a veterinarian are non-negotiable to maintain your horse's health. These visits can catch potential health issues early and keep up with necessary vaccinations and dental care

Just like other pets, horses require vaccinations to protect against common equine diseases. Deworming is also a must, as worms can lead to serious health issues if not managed. 

Your veterinarian can create a vaccination and deworming schedule tailored to your horse and local health risks.

Recognising Signs of Illness

Being able to recognise the early signs of illness can be life-saving. Common symptoms to watch for include changes in appetite, lethargy, unusual stool, coughing, or nasal discharge. 

There’s a lot to unpack here, but prompt action and consulting with a veterinarian can prevent complications or more severe health issues.

Grooming Basics

Grooming is not just about keeping your horse looking good; it's an essential part of their health care routine. 

Tools you'll need include a curry comb, body brush, mane and tail brush, and a hoof pick. I recommend keeping reusable grooming wipes handy as well! 

Regular grooming helps distribute natural oils through the coat, keeps the skin healthy, and allows you to check for any cuts, sores, or signs of illness.

Hoof Care: Cleaning and Trimming

The saying "No hoof, no horse" underscores the importance of hoof care. Hooves should be cleaned regularly with a hoof pick to remove debris and prevent infections like thrush. Regular trimming by a professional farrier every six to eight weeks is also essential to maintain hoof health and prevent lameness.

The Role of Grooming in Health and Bonding

Grooming strengthens the bond between you and your horse. It's a time when you can check for any health issues and spend quality time together. This bonding is crucial for building trust and can greatly improve training and handling experiences.

Exercise and Training

Horses require regular physical activity to stay healthy and happy. This involves not only free time in a pasture or paddock but also structured exercise such as riding, lunging, or even walking. A walk around the farm does wonders for every equine! 

Tailor your horse's exercise routine to their health, age, and energy level to keep them in optimal condition.

Housing and Shelter

Choosing the right housing for your horse depends on your available space, the climate, and your horse's needs. Stables offer protection from weather extremes and are essential in colder climates. Paddocks or pastures are preferable in milder climates where horses can roam freely and engage in natural behaviors.

Essential Features of a Good Shelter

A good shelter, whether it's a stable or a lean-to in a pasture, should provide sufficient space for the horse to move around comfortably, ventilation for fresh air, and protection from wind, rain, and extreme temperatures. It should also be free of hazards such as protruding nails or unstable flooring.


Horses are herd animals by nature and thrive in the company of other horses. Companionship helps prevent behavioural issues and stress-related conditions. If owning multiple horses isn't feasible, consider boarding at a stable where your horse can interact with others.

Seasonal Care

Seasonal changes require adjustments in how you care for your horse. In summer, ensure ample shade and water to prevent overheating and dehydration. Winter care might include increased feed intake, as horses use more energy to stay warm, and possibly blanketing, depending on the breed and local climate.

Protecting Against Extreme Weather

It’s vital to provide proper protection against the elements. In regions with extreme weather, such as heavy snowfall or high temperatures, additional measures like heated water troughs to prevent freezing and cooling stations can help maintain your horse’s comfort and health.

Equipment and Supplies

A well-equipped tack room is crucial for effective horse care. Essential items include saddles, bridles, halters, lead ropes, and blankets. Also, keep a well-stocked first-aid kit specifically for equine care, which should include items like bandages, antiseptic solutions, and tools for minor emergency interventions.

Tips on choosing quality supplies

Invest in high-quality equipment that ensures safety and comfort for both the horse and rider. Quality gear lasts longer and can prevent accidents and injuries. Regular maintenance and inspections of all equipment are also necessary to ensure they remain safe to use.

Handling and Safety

Proper handling is vital for the safety of both the horse and its handler. Always approach a horse calmly and speak softly to avoid startling them. Training your horse to accept handling of all parts of its body can prevent injury during grooming, medical examinations, or saddling.

Safety tips for owners and handlers

Always wear appropriate safety gear such as boots and helmets when around or riding horses. I make little kids wear helmets even when doing groundwork and grooming, but I honestly think all equestrians should follow that rule to a certain extent.

Ensure that all interactions with horses are done in a controlled environment where the horse feels secure. Be aware of the horse's body language to predict its reactions and maintain a safe environment.

Nutritional Health

A horse's diet must be carefully managed to maintain optimal health. Basic equine nutrition includes a balance of forage (like hay and grass), grains, and water, supplemented by vitamins and minerals as needed. Each horse's dietary needs will vary depending on age, weight, activity level, and overall health.

The Role of Supplements

While not all horses require supplements, they can be beneficial in addressing specific health issues like joint stiffness, digestive problems, or nutritional deficiencies. Always consult with a veterinarian before starting any new supplement to ensure it's necessary and suitable for your horse’s particular health requirements.

Legal and Ethical Responsibilities


Ownership laws for horses can vary significantly depending on the region. It's important to understand local regulations regarding horse care, transportation, and welfare. This includes registration, vaccination requirements, and standards for equine facilities.

Ethical horse care involves more than meeting the basic needs of your horse; it includes considering their psychological well-being and ensuring they lead a life that is as natural and stress-free as possible. Practices such as responsible breeding, appropriate training methods, and considering the long-term welfare of the horse are fundamental.

Budgeting for Your Horse

Purchasing a horse is just the beginning of what can be a considerable financial commitment. Initial costs include the purchase price, veterinary checks, and basic equipment. Ongoing expenses can include feed, stable rent or board, veterinary care, farrier services, and insurance.

It’s also crucial to set aside funds for unexpected expenses such as emergency veterinary care, sudden dietary needs, or equipment replacement. Being financially prepared can significantly reduce the stress of managing health emergencies or unforeseen circumstances.

Resources for Horse Owners

There are numerous resources available to help new and experienced horse owners alike. Books, websites, blogs and local or online horse owner communities can also provide support and a network of advice from experienced owners.

When to Seek Professional Advice

While resources can provide a great deal of information, there are times when you’ll have to seek professional advice. No shame - we’ve all been there.

This includes any signs of illness, behavioural issues, or when you're unsure about your horse's care needs. Always consult a veterinarian or an equine specialist when in doubt.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Overfeeding and under-exercising are two of the most common pitfalls in horse care. Providing too much feed can lead to obesity and associated health problems such as laminitis. 

Similarly, insufficient exercise can result in behavioural and health issues. Another common mistake is neglecting regular veterinary care, which can prevent early detection and treatment of potential health problems.

Horse Ownership is Fun…We Promise!

Owning a horse is a rewarding experience that comes with significant responsibilities. By understanding and implementing the basics of horse care, from daily maintenance to seasonal adjustments, you can ensure a healthy and happy life for your equine companion. 

Remember, responsible horse ownership not only involves caring for the physical needs of your horse but also building a strong, trusting relationship through ethical and compassionate handling and care.

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